Graduate Courses


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CL 506: Problems in Greek Archaeology

Several different courses are taught under this general listing:

Ancient Greek Houses & Households

The aim of this seminar is to introduce advanced students to the study of Greek domestic architecture, both in terms of the principle examples thereof and to the variety of methodological approaches to them.  We will take up issues ranging from the use, function, and decorative elaboration of domestic space, to the domestic economy, to issues of status, ideology, and gender in the Greek house. (Ault)

Classical Urbanism

Aspects of the city, city-state, and urbanism have long been a focus for scholars of ancient Greece. Historical and archaeological studies abound. Relatively recent important works include Murray and Price (1990), Hoepfner and Schwandner (1994), the numerous publications of the Copenhagen Polis Centre (cf., and, most lately, Hansen (2006). This semester we will address and explore issues related to the Greek city and urbanism. Our approach to studying ancient cities should be diverse and interdisciplinary, oriented towards conceptual entities as well as physical realities. Topics for consideration will include case-studies of individual cities themselves, and may also take up the rise of the polis; varieties of public and sacred spaces, buildings and civic amenities (for example, the need for defense and measures of fortification), as well as aspects of their development, design and placement; orthogonal planning and Hippodamos of Miletus; urban development and design in the colonies; the relationship between the city and its countryside; and may also include allied, particularly ancient Near Eastern, Italic, and Roman manifestations of similar phenomena. (Ault)

The Iconography of Greek Painted Pottery

This seminar should provide both a broad overview and in depth coverage of the study of painted pottery from the Greek world.  Starting from the proposition that we can and should be reading material culture as a text, the iconography of and on Greek pots provides a singularly rich source for shedding light on numerous aspects of ancient Greece simply not recoverable through other avenues of exploration. (Ault)

The Greeks Overseas

We shall consider Greek colonial and other activity abroad from an archaeological as well as an historical perspective.  We will take up significant examples of where the Greeks left their mark as well as instances where others influenced them.  Many avenues present themselves for study as part of our wide-ranging topic, from detailed considerations of settlements themselves, the foreign populations impacted by Greek culture, of relations between colonizers and the colonized, or between mother city and colony, as well as the phenomenon of the Greek apoikia within the larger historical framework of colonization, colonial and, more recently, post-colonial scholarship.  Moreover, I would like to stage the seminar itself within the overarching framework of Braudelian and post-Braudelian Mediterranean Studies generally. (Ault)

The Topography of Athens & Attica

We will spend the semester engaged in a diachronic survey of the urban and rural landscapes of Athens and Attica, considering not only the physical manifestations of cultural behaviors (i.e., sites, monuments, and artifacts), but their associated institutional, social, historical, and ideological aspects.  That we may gain a deeper appreciation for how the discipline conducts itself, I would also like to take up issues impacting upon the history of Classical Archaeology, especially as practiced out of the omphalos of Athens. (Ault)

CL 508: Roman Archaeology 1

This course is designed to provide entry-level graduate students in Classical studies with a general introduction to the archaeology of the ancient Romans from early Iron Age down to the end of the Republic (ca. 1000-27 BC)

CL 512: End of Rome & Birth of Europe

This course will look at the archaeology and history of Italy and Western Europe from the Reign of Constantine through the Reign of Charlemagne.  It will use archaeological and documentary evidence to explore such topics as the Christianity of the Roman Empire, the Barbarian Invasions, changes and continuity of the cities and countryside of Europe and the rise of the new order in Merovingian and Carolingian Europe.  Emphasis will be on the way that new discoveries, especially in archaeology have changed how we look at this period. (Dyson)

CL 523: Religion and Society in the Ancient Greek City

Analysis of the role of religion in the ancient Greek polis with attention to the archaeological evidence for cult practice, the representation of ritual acts in Greek art and literature, gender difference and symbolic systems, religious ideology of the community, and the ritual of the life cycle. Topics include: introduction to the major divinities; rituals ritual acts and ritual space; language and gesture; purity and pollution; cults of the home and family; public festivals and the city’s calendar; religion and politics; divine therapeutics; death and the afterlife.

CL 527: History of Greek Literature

A survey of Greek literature covering the principal genres of the archaic and classical periods.  The course begins with Homeric questions and the production of literature, continues through Hesiod and early Greek poetry, philosophy, and the invention of prose, followed by Greek drama (both tragedy and comedy) and the writing of history, oratory, and philosophical theory. Concentration on developing reading skills and becoming familiar with the conventional and digital research tools available for studying Greek literature. (Higbie, Teegarden)

CL 528: History of Latin Literature

This course provides an intensive survey of Latin literature, primarily poetry, from its beginnings to the early Empire.  Through extended readings from a variety of authors, students will improve their understanding of the Latin language, including verse forms, and gain an overview of the history and development of Latin letters.  In class, the instructor and students will address problems of comprehension, discuss literary history, and analyze poetics.  (Coffee)

CL 530: The Ancient Economy

A topical survey of the economy of the Roman Empire (offered jointly with an undergraduate section) that combines lectures, in-class presentations by students, and the discussion of readings.  Emphasizes the different forms of textual and material cultural evidence available for the elucidation of the Roman economy and the ways in which historians and archaeologists employ these for economic analysis.  The course is organized around weekly topics, including general models of the Roman economy, the free market versus the command economy, rationality, productivity and growth, money, labor and occupations, the economic role of towns, agricultural production, marketing, bankers and traders, consumption, and quantitative approaches to economic analysis.  Written assignments are aimed at developing students’ skills in the summary and critical evaluation of scholarly literature and the execution of a literature survey.

CL 537: History of Latin Literature

In this course, students will survey Latin verse from its origins to the present day and increase their reading proficiency through the reading and discussion of extended passages of Latin.

CL 538:  History of Latin Literature 2

In this course, students will survey Latin verse from its origins to the present day and increase their reading proficiency through the reading and discussion of extended passages of Latin. (Coffee)

In this class students will improve their proficiency in reading Latin and survey the history of Latin literature from the first Latin authors down to the early medieval period. (Malamud)

CL 540: Pompeii

A systematic survey in lecture format (offered jointly with an undergraduate section) of the remains of the buried city of Pompeii.  The course aims to familiarize students with the ways in which archaeologists and historians have used the broad array of evidence available from the town (e.g., buildings, frescoes, sculpture, private archives, graffiti, pottery, metalwork and other portable material culture, human remains, environmental data) to illuminate various aspects of its social, political, religious, and economic life.  Students complete a research design/mock grant proposal for a program of investigation regarding some aspect of Pompeii. (Dyson)

CL 543 (LAT 443):  Reading of Latin Literature

Roman Satire

The focus will be on Horace’s Satires and Epodes.  We will work on increasing Latin reading speed, becoming familiar with Horace’s biography and the turbulent historical era he lived through, and improving understanding of grammar, syntax, and scansion. (Malamud)

Readings in Later Latin

This will be a reading class directed at advanced undergraduates and graduate students, with readings in Latin. The readings will include a representative sample of Later Latin prose and poetry, both Christian and non-Christian. (Malamud)

Roman Invective and Verbal Abuse

An exploration of the world of Roman verbal assault. Readings in Latin will range from inscriptions on sling bullets and walls, to scurrilous pamphlets, to formal full-blown invective speeches. We will investigate especially how themes within Roman invective reveal broader cultural values. (Dugan)

The Roman Novel

Students will read substantial portions of the two surviving Roman novels, Petronius’ Satyricon and Apuleius’s Metamorphoses (or Asinus Aureus).  In addition to improving reading speed and ability, the class will introduce the genre of the ancient novel.  Students will be assigned secondary readings relating to the novels and will be expected not only to translate, but also to give oral reports on assigned topics and provide commentary on designated sections of the text.  (Malamud)

CL 544 (GR 444): Reading Greek Literature

Reading Greek Literature: “Aristophanes and Lucian: Culture Wars”

What is valuable? What counts as knowledge? And who has the authority to decide these matters? Like many societies undergoing dramatic changes, the Athenians of the late 5th century BCE and the Greeks of the eastern Mediterranean in the mid-2nd century CE were faced with particularly stark versions of these questions. In this course we will read a selection of satirical texts from these two cultural crisis points. Our main focus will be on Aristophanes’ Clouds, which (besides being hugely entertaining) provides insight into contemporary anxieties about new modes of education and new ways of thinking about humans’ relationship to the world around them. Additional readings, drawn from the corpus of Lucian of Samosata, will reflect the struggles for authority that resulted from the new prominence of charismatic philosophical and religious leaders in the imperial Greek world.

Students will read Aristophanes’ Clouds in Greek, with the aim of improving reading speed and comprehension, as well as understanding the cultural context of the play. Selected readings from Lucian (in Greek, if time permits) will be drawn from Alexander the Oracle Monger and/or The Death of Peregrinus. The course will also incorporate secondary readings on Aristophanes and Lucian. (Fields)

A close reading of Euripides​’ Helen. (Teegarden)

This course is designed to increase reading fluency in Greek and to introduce students to a variety of Greek authors. (Higbie)

A close reading of Aristotle’s Poetics. (Woodard)

Plutarch is one of the most important Greek writers of the Roman Empire.  Long of interest to historians, his works have only recently gained attention for their literary qualities.  In this course we will read Plutarch’s Life of Antony with the aims of improving reading speed and comprehension as well as gaining familiarity with Plutarch’s Atticizing style, the Greek culture of the Roman Empire, and the development of the biographical form. (Fields)

CL 580: Ancient Mediterranean Ceramics

Several different courses are taught under this general listing:

Roman Pottery

A systematic survey of the physical characteristics, chronology, technology/production, function, and cultural significance of the more common classes of pottery used in the Roman world, including tableware, cookware, utilitarian wares, and amphorae.  Written assignments provide students experience in collecting information from the archaeological literature and writing this up in the form of reports.

Ceramic Analysis

An intensive, hands-on introduction to some of the more important methods employed for the analysis of archaeological pottery and potting materials, including the analysis of the physical properties of clays, the evaluation of forming and surfacing procedures, the mineralogical and chemical characterization of pottery composition, the evaluation of pottery function, the quantification of pottery assemblages, and the evaluation of assemblage formation.  Students complete a series of eight labs aimed at providing experience with the application of various analytical methods.  They then apply the knowledge/experience gained in lectures/readings/labs to complete a research project involving the analysis of archaeological pottery and/or potting materials.

Material Culture in the Roman World

An in-depth survey of material culture in the Roman world.  The course aims to familiarize students with theoretical approaches to the consideration and study of material culture, the various categories of material culture produced by the Romans, the technologies employed for the manufacture of these items, and approaches to the description, analysis, and publication of Roman material culture.  The course includes a visit to the Roman galleries of the Royal Ontario Museum, which contain the richest assemblage of Roman material culture on display in North America.


CL 590: Syntax and Stylistics

Comprehensive review of Greek syntax in the context of selections from Greek literature. Texts include Attic prose of the classical period as well as traditional sub-literary genres examined as examples of style and patterns of syntax. Emphasis on writing Greek prose using selections from classical literature as models.  (Higbie)

CL 593: Sanskrit 1

A linguistic and philological examination of Sanskrit, the ancient Indo-European language of India and one of the earliest attested of all Indo-European languages.  The course focuses on the study of Sanskrit grammar and Sanskrit readings from the Nala episode of the MahÅbhÅrata, one of the two epics of ancient India. (Woodard)

CL 594: Sanskrit 2

A continuation of the linguistic and philological study of Sanskrit.  The course focuses on the study of Sanskrit grammar and Sanskrit readings from the MahÅbhÅrata and additional texts as time allows. (Woodard)

CL 595: Latin Syntax and Stylistics

This class is made up of two distinct but complementary activities: the reading and stylistic analysis of selected Latin prose texts from the 2nd cent. BCE to the 5th cent. CE; and a systematic overview of Latin prose syntax through composition exercises. The goals are to provide a survey of Latin prose style and to compose Latin in order to achieve a firm grasp of proper Latin grammar. (Coffee)

This class is made up of two distinct, but ultimately complementary, activities: the reading and stylistic analysis of selected Latin prose texts from the 2nd cent. BCE to the 5th cent. CE; and a systematic overview of Latin prose syntax through composition exercises. The goals are to provide a survey of the range of Latin prose style (including Cato, Cicero, Sallust, Caesar, Livy, Seneca, Tacitus, Apuleius, and Jerome) and to compose Latin in order to achieve a firm grasp of proper Latin grammar and syntax. (Dugan)

CL 598: Indo-European Linguistics

A linguistic examination of the Indo-European language family and its parent, Proto-Indo-European.  The course surveys the family, focusing especially on the earliest members of each subfamily, examines in detail the grammar (lexicon, phonology, morphology and syntax) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, and investigates changes that occurred as the parent language evolved into the various attested Indo-European languages. (Woodard)

CL 611: Greek Historiography

The goal of this seminar is to introduce Classics and Art History students to Greek epic poetry, lyric poetry and drama, and how the stories they tell were depicted in Greek art.

CL 634: Catullus

In this seminar we will scrutinize Catullus’ appropriation and adaptation of Alexandrian poetics in order to arrive at a deeper understanding both of Catullus’ poetry and of Roman Alexandrianism as a whole.

CL 635: Hesiod

A seminar investigation of the epic author Hesiod, designed to acquaint the student with recent research in Hesiodic studies; to provide students with the opportunity to read the Greek text of Hesiod’s Theogony and Works and Days; and to provide students with the opportunity to undertake original research on some topic related to Hesiod. (Woodard)

CL 707:  Greek Literature

The ancient Greek novel presents a puzzle: it was hugely popular in the Greco-Roman world, yet was never classified as a genre in antiquity. This is one reason why these works of extended prose fiction were not taken seriously by classical scholars until fairly recently. Another reason for the dismissal of the novels is the very thing that makes them so much fun to read: their adventurous and romantic plots involving young couples in love, devious pirates, decadent aristocrats, noble shepherds, and other colorful characters of the eastern Mediterranean. In this class, we will read several complete novels in translation, looking to their relationship with their literary ancestors (especially epic poetry, tragedy, Platonic philosophy, and new comedy), but also approaching these texts as rich sources for the culture of the Greek-speaking Roman empire as well as the intersection of that culture with its non-Greek neighbors in the east. Reading ancient sources in the original languages is not required, and graduate students from outside the Classics Department are welcome. (Fields)

In this class we will read selections from both the Iliad and the Odyssey, developing our skills in understanding Homeric Greek. We will familiarize ourselves with the scholarship in orality and apply it to the Homeric epics. (Higbie)

CL 708: Latin Literature

“Cicero and Divination”

Divination and prediction were major preoccupations within the cultural ferment of late Republican Rome. In this seminar we will explore the role that the interpretation of signs played within Cicero’s thought and life. We will investigate both Cicero’s major meditations on divination (De Divinatione; De Haurispicum Responso) and his broader habits of determining meaning in literature, politics, and philosophy. Our goal will be to better understand how these hermeneutical practices helped to shape Cicero and his world. Therefore, this class will appeal to students interested in how divination worked within the intersection of Roman religion, politics, and intellectual culture. ​(Dugan)

Vergil’s Aeneid is the most influential work of Latin literature, the central text of Roman ideals, and a unique store of knowledge about Roman culture. In this seminar, students will read the epic’s controversial book 12, against the background of the whole poem and the circumstances in which Vergil wrote. The recent publication of the first modern English commentary on Book 12 provides the opportunity to consider it in greater depth. Students will read the whole of the Aeneid in translation, and the Latin of book 12 over the course of the semester, discussing the readings in class. They will also be introduced to a variety of new digital approaches to exploring the provenance and legacy of the Aeneid. These will include tools that allow for tracing discussions of particular passages in secondary scholarship. The primary student work will be to present a set of lines to the class, participate in class discussion, and write a final paper. (Coffee)

The Latin Literature Seminar offers graduate students an in-depth exploration of Latin texts at an advanced level.  The topic changes each semester; the seminar may focus on a single author, a genre, a time-period, or a theme. Recent seminar topics include Vergil and his Critics, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, Exchange Ideologies in Classical Literature, the Age of Nero. The seminar typically requires extensive reading in Latin, a survey of scholarship, and some combination of article critiques, in-class presentations, and a research project.  (Malamud; Coffee)

Political and Legal Theory in late Republican Rome

A survey of political and legal thought in the last decades of the republic that will feature a close reading of portions of Cicero’s De Republica and De Legibus. (Dugan)

CL 711: Seminar on Greek History

Several different courses are taught under this general listing:

Greek History

A diachronic analysis of socio-political change in Athens from the late Dark Age to the end of the Peloponnesian Wars. We will discuss several themes, including the emergence of democracy and the relationship between the threat credibility of individuals or factions and social order. (Teegarden)

We begin by examining what Greek historians thought was important about their past and how they organized the chronology of that past.  Then we will read some of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’ essays on Greek historians and examine a series of topics, including the Greek use of evidence.  Historians to be read (in selections) include Herodotus, Thucydides, and Polybius; other authors include Pausanias, Strabo, and Plutarch. (Higbie)


Survey of representations of Dionysos in literature (concentrating on Euripides’ Bacchae and Aristophanes’ Frogs) and inscriptions found throughout the Greek world. Topics include Dionysian iconography as displayed on vases, coins, free standing sculpture, and votive reliefs; the varieties of archaeological evidence for the worship of this god; and the important inscriptions on stone, gold, bone, and ceramic relating to his cult. Covers material from Italy to Dura Europus and from Olbia to Egypt. Provides opportunities for students to use the methodologies of their graduate concentration and to develop new areas of expertise.

CL 712:  Roman History

Several different courses are taught under this general listing:

This seminar will study the development of the writing of Roman History from the eighteenth through the early twenty-first century. The focus will be on a limited number of major historians, but I do not want it to become a ‘great man’ approach to the writing of Roman history. For each period I plan through the use of student presentations to explore ‘secondary’ historians as well as the general culture of ancient history writing in that period. Since all of the featured historians were what we might call today ‘public intellectuals’, we will also consider the wider political, social, and cultural world in which they worked and lived. (Dyson)

Roman Countryside

This seminar will explore diverse approaches to the understanding of the Roman countryside, which was the foundation of Roman society and economy in both the Republic and the Empire. The first part will be concerned with the historical dev elopement of the countryside during the Republic. Consideration will be given to the archaeological evidence, but also to the historical debates on the changing structure of rural society and the ‘ideology’ of Roman rural life’ as articulated in authors like Cato and Vergil. It will then look at the diverse patterns of rural development in different parts of the Empire. The changing nature of the villa will obviously be a central concern. However, consideration will also be given to wider rural social and economic structures as expressed in such institutions as religion and burial. (Dyson)

Roman Numismatics

This seminar will study the evolution of Roman coinage and the coinage based economy from the third century BC to the fourth century AD. The first part of the course will focus on the changing nature of the coinage itself. The second will be concerned with the uses of coin information for resolving archaeological problems related to site dating and occupation history and historical problems related to propaganda and economic development.  (Dyson)


Livy’s reconstruction of the Roman Republic is probably our most important work for understanding the first seven centuries of Roman history. This seminar will focus on Livy’s agenda, his methods, and on changing scholarly and interpretative approaches to Livy.  It will conclude with considerations on the later uses of Livy in the western classical tradition.  (Dyson)


Tacitus defines our vision of the Early Roman Empire. He also defines our vision of what life is life under an authoritarian regime. Tacitus approached history through a variety of genres, and this seminar will through readings in the Agricola, Dialogus, and the Histories how Tacitus used each form to achieve his historiographical ends. (Dyson)

The Topography and Social History of Ancient Rome

This seminar will look at the development of the city of Rome from its foundation to the early Christianization of the city. The aim will be to combine the approaches of urban archaeology, art history, topography, and social and economic history to recreate the development pf Rome as a complex and on the whole successful mega-city. (Dyson)

The Development of the Historiography of Rome from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries

The reconstruction of the history of ancient Rome has been one of the major historiographical challenges of the past two centuries. This seminar will look at this achievement through several major figures. Edward Gibbon, Theodor Mommsen, Michael Rostovtzeff, Ronald Syme, and Moses Finley will be the major ancient historians considered. In each case the emphasis will be both on their specific research and on the ways their historical environment shaped their analysis of ancient Rome. (Dyson)

CL 721: Greek Epigraphy

Introduction to the study of Greek inscriptions and the research tools of Greek epigraphy, concentrating on the epigraphical evidence for Greek religious practice.  Consideration of the traditional issues of Greek epigraphy (history of the alphabet, development of local scripts and letter forms, dialect variations, the major genres of inscribed texts, and problems of dating) in the context of the religious traditions of the Greek polis.  Texts are chosen to illustrate the definition of ritual space, concern for pollution, requirements for sacrifice, organization of festivals, sanctuaries and priesthoods, and the recognition of the divine by the individual and the political community as expressed in dedications, sacred laws, the formulaic texts issued by cities, and tomb inscriptions.

CL 722: Latin Epigraphy

A general introduction to the study of Latin/Roman inscriptions.  The principal goals of the course are to familiarize students with the various categories of inscribed materials from the Roman world and to provide them experience in the translation of these, to familiarize students with the various ways in which inscribed materials from the Roman world are analyzed and interpreted and to provide them experience with some of these approaches, and to familiarize students with the various printed and electronic resources available for the study of inscribed materials from the Roman world.  Students complete a semester project that involves compiling the corpus of funerary epitaphs pertaining to one specific occupation, preparing these for presentation, and analyzing these from a social/economic point of view.

CL 730: Roman Ostia

An in-depth survey of the uniquely rich architectural, epigraphical, and material cultural remains of the ancient Roman town of Ostia and the research methods that scholars are currently employing to investigate these.  Students complete a small GIS project in order to gain some familiarity with the application of GIS technology in archaeology and carry out weekly readings in Italian in order to improve their command of the scholarly literature in this language.  For a semester project they complete a research design/mock grant proposal for a program of research at Ostia.


CL 787: Topics in Classical Archaeology

Several different courses are taught under this general listing:

The Roman Countryside

Rome was throughout its history largely a rural society, but our literary sources are little concerned with life in the countryside. This seminar will look at how we can reconstruct the history of the Roman countryside with special emphasis on Italy and the Western Roman Provinces. Various archaeological techniques such as survey, remote sensing and aerial photography will be considered. However, the uses of art history and literary analysis will also be considered. (Dyson)

The History of Classical Archaeology

This course will explore the development of Classical Archaeology as a discipline from its origins in the Italian Renaissance to the professionalism of today. It will look at archaeology and the antiquarian tradition, archaeology and neo-classicism, the history of collecting, and archaeology and nationalism, and archaeology and the ideologies of fascism and Nazism. For each era classical archaeology will be considered in relation to broader, cultural, intellectual, and political developments. (Dyson)

Roman Visual Culture

This seminar will focus on the application of different art historical techniques to the major visual monuments of ancient Rome. Important areas of investigation will be Roman portraiture, Roman wall painting, and Roman relief sculpture. The history of the changing interpretation of Roman art as well as current models of interpretation will be studied. (Dyson)

Working with Roman Antiquities

This class explores how objects found in excavations and in museum collections (“antiquities”) can be used to reconstruct aspects of ancient daily life. It focuses specifically on the material culture of the Roman world. A series of lectures will cover the major types of antiquities from the Roman world and the technology that produced them: pottery, coins, oil lamps, bronzes, writing utensils, weapons, fibulae, jewelry etc. A more theoretical set of lectures will illustrate how this evidence is used by classical archaeologists with concrete examples. Other topics include scientific approaches to material culture, legal and ethical issues, and the strategies employed by European museums and archaeological services in dealing with “portable heritage.”

Students will be asked to identify objects in the department’s collection, and to give a paper and presentation on the application of antiquities to an aspect of Roman life. The course will also involve a visit to the storerooms of the Buffalo Museum of Science, a field trip to a museum and involvement with the Art Conservation Department at Buffalo State. (Kiernan)

CL 788: Archaeology of Western Roman Empire & Britain

The creation of a Romanized west was the greatest achievement of Rome, but an achievement that was little covered in the literary sources. This seminar will study various techniques and approaches from inscriptions to popular art that are used in the reconstruction of Roman provincial history. While all of the western provinces will receive some attention, emphasis will be placed in Britain, Gaul and Germany. (Dyson)